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Evidence-based practice best essay

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Evidence-Based Practice: Improving Practice, Improving Outcomes (Part One)


In Part 1, by Anne Dabrow Woods, MSN, RN, CRNP, ANP-BC, Chief Nurse, Wolters Kluwer Health, Ovid and Lippincott Williams ...

Evidence Based Practice Free Short Essay - Paper Topics

Evidence-based practice best essay

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Benin art - what can it tell us about cross-cultural encounters? Extracts from this document. Part 1 - Option B In no more than 500 words, after reading the following text, how can it tell us about cross-cultural encounters? --- This piece of text can offer a great deal of information on cross-cultural encounters between the Western world and the Benin people. It is an entry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica from the entry on 'Negro', published in 1910-1911. The author was T.A. Joyce, an Assistant in the Department of Ethnography at the British Museum, at the time of publication. It was written aimed for educated people. Upon reading the text, we can clearly see it was written by someone using racial stereotypes. Joyce refers to the natives as 'impressionable', 'vain', with 'servant dog-like fidelity' and performing acts of 'singular atrocity' (Brown, Cultural Encounters, p81).

The picture that he paints is of a primitive, backwards and savage people, who need the guidance of a more 'civilized' race. This was the view of quite a significant amount of people during the time this text was written, and practice best essay it has only been in more recent times that this picture is changing. However, he does sate that the natives surpassed the Europeans in their sense of hearing, sight, hearing and topography and that with training, they could become skilful craftsmen. . read more. One extract from Paper One - Media & Society me writing, The Times, after an exhibition of 300 bronze plaques at best, the British Museum in of God", 1897, states '. the Evidence-based practice best technical perfection of the work, are surprising evidences of the skill of the of Slang Benin native' (Loftus Wood, Cultural Encounters, p.79). From this, we can see that evidence of skilled craftsmanship was the opposite of what the British perceived of the Evidence-based practice native, admitting the surprise of the skilfulness. They could not believe the technological sophistication and exquisite beauty and quality of Get a Band and Get, these objects. What they saw was a contradiction to what many late 19th and Evidence-based practice best early 20th century westerners assumed or thought about Africa and native African people.

African art had a deep impact on modern art and we can see this through the works of such avant-garde artists such as Matisse and Picasso. Picasso underwent an 'African Period', when the artist was influenced by African art. In his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) (Illustration Booklet, p.32), two of the of research and dissertation women are depicted with African masks or faces, which gives it a primitive feel. It was at this time that people started to look at the origins of Evidence-based best essay, humanity, and the term 'primitivism' was coined to How to Get a Band and Get describe the opinion that life was better among simpler or primitive people or during the early stages of civilization. . read more. Since the original owners are from Nigeria, they belong back in Nigeria to the African people. Chris Spring from the British Museum makes a different argument. He states that he is aware of the strong support for the Benin pieces to be returned to Nigeria and says that a degree of this was in the forcible way in which the pieces were removed initially in Evidence-based, 1897. He claims that in regards to ownership, they are 'in a sense belonging to humankind' (CD-ROM), not just to the African people. Travail. He maintains that it is important for the pieces to be displayed here in order to educate people about Evidence-based practice essay, African culture as well as how they contribute to the world cultural heritage belonging to all people, when they walk into the British Museum.

It is also a way of Edgar Allen Paper, helping to best essay re-educate the racist stereotyping of primitive, savage Africa that people, even today, still believe. In conclusion, these examples can help us see the way in which African art, history and Dissertation sur le travail culture has changed since the arrival of the Benin artworks in 1897. We can also expect them to continually change and re-shape the way in which people perceives African history and culture in the future. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in practice, our University Degree 1800-1899 section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree 1800-1899 essays. What was the significance of the Paris Commune of 1871? prompting the massacre by Parisians of The Notion of Slang, dozens of hostages taken by the Commune. At the practice best end of the Semaine Sanglante5 of May 21 to 28th when the city had finally been subdued, about 25,000 Parisians were dead, most of them shot after surrendering to the army. Why was there a Scramble for Africa in the late 19th Century? (68/100) go to the trouble and particularly the expense of taking on any more overseas responsibilities, however much missionaries and merchants urged [governments] to do so16. Whilst urging merchants to go to Allen Poe Research Africa to trade and spread commerce the cost of administering dependent territories and Evidence-based essay of the steadily increasing armaments made.

He called the booth maison du caf?. Philosophique Sur Le. It was the Evidence-based first movement for of God" - ( Thematic ) write essay, the establishment of the idea of caf?s. In the mid 1670s, Pascal opened a little coffee boutique. It was opened to satisfy the city's need for a place for drinking and to make some profit out of. What insights into late Victorian gender and Evidence-based practice best social relations can be gleaned from a . can be looked at as having been two separate cities divided by class and social conditions as well as by geographic definitions. The West End in 1880s London was a thriving capitalist machine at the very heart of what was considered, at least by the British, to be the The Notion greatest empire in the world. What was the significance of higher education for women.

Sandra Taylor goes on to discuss these reasons. She contends that women who worked were considered immoral and promiscuous. Evidence-based Essay. There was concern that work would morally corrupt the eventual wife and mother, that her knowledge of domestic affairs would therefore suffer (1977). O'Brien and Quinall (1993, p.33) express the - ( Thematic essay most common view which was that it was believed. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson and the Reconstruction. Practice Essay. Shellabarger declared that the rebellious states must be considered a ?body politic? with powers of government and could not be considered in the same relation to the federal government as before.[16] Under this theory the government had and obligation to How to Get a and Get guarantee each state a republican form of government. In this essay I shall consider how all three explanations contributed to Chartisms support . Practice Best Essay. as well as addressing class legislations such as opposition to Dissertation philosophique travail the Poor Law[o]. The speaker states, ?abolish the Evidence-based practice army, dash the Essentials of research and dissertation navy? (L.48) ?crush the church by law established, obliterate the practice essay debt from the national ledger, restore republicanism, establish equality? (L.50?L.51).

Compare and contrast the European-indigenous encounter in Australia with that of New Zealand. In . ________________ ASSESSMENT 2: Research Essay. Question 2) Compare and Allen Poe Research Paper contrast the European-indigenous encounter in Australia with that of New Zealand. Evidence-based Practice Essay. In what ways can these encounters be considered wars? In the two centuries succeeding the birth of the nation-state, a feverish ideology of imperialism gripped Western Europe.

of student written work Annotated by. "Son Of God" - ( Thematic Paper ) Write Me An. experienced teachers Ideas and best feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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Part Three Navigate Online Applications. Do you remember your first resume? If it was over 15 years ago, perhaps your Career Counselor told you to print it on the highest grade (eh hem, scented) paper and hand deliver it with a little chocolate gift to be followed up with a thank-you card. If it was created less than 10 years ago, and you tried the Evidence-based practice best same strategy, you were likely struck down with, “you have to apply online.” Raise your hand if you can relate? As you may realize, the internet has totally transformed the Edgar hiring process and affected the entire labor market in a very short time.

We’ll let you in on practice best, a little secret, Nurse Managers and Nurse Recruiters rarely read resumes in detail. They may skim them for a few seconds, but for the vast majority of Edgar Paper healthcare employers, resumes are prescreened and Evidence-based selected by robots. Robots that have been programmed to forward only the most qualified candidates to a decision maker. The resume-reading robot is actually a program known as Applicant Tracking Software (ATS). Edgar. It is highly technical and individualized, but not nearly as smart as a human. It does what it has been programmed to do. An employer may enter in Evidence-based practice best specific keywords for the ATS to scan for.

They may choose to enter “knockout questions” to Dissertation sur le travail, quickly eliminate unqualified candidates. Such as, “Do you have an active Washington State Nursing License?” They could even choose to Evidence-based essay, include “disqualifying statements” to automatically screen candidates out. For example, if an Position One - & Society me writing ATS is programmed to practice best essay, screen out all resumes lacking a Bachelor’s Degree, anyone with an Associate’s Degree will automatically be rejected. If you have both, consider listing only your BSN. Recruiters may also configure the ATS to only deliver resumes that include exact keywords. Not all ATS systems are created equal. They vary greatly in their functionality and behavior. For example, some ATS will not be able to differentiate between titles, such as Clinical Nurse II and Registered Nurse.

Other ATS systems may not be able to distinguish between the How to Get a and Get terms BLS and Basic Life Support. Bottom line, read the job description and use the exact wording . If you use acronyms and abbreviations, make sure to spell out the entire word followed by the shortened version. While ATS has streamlined the hiring process for Evidence-based best employers, it’s also made job search extremely challenging for the job seeker. In fact, 94% of hiring professionals say that ATS has positively influenced their hiring goals, while 80% of job seekers say that their online job search is stressful. How To Get A And Get Famous. 1. The problem is that ATS does not ‘read’ a resume as a human would - it simply collects data.

It doesn’t care about aesthetics either. It is programmed by an employer to search for Evidence-based practice best essay the right keywords, in the right order, on the right part of the resume. Most ATS systems are programmed to score resumes according to keywords. Media Me Writing. However, they can be configured to search and score resumes based on various other criteria. Also, it can get confused pretty easily. Best Essay. For example, if the font is too fancy or if it encounters unrecognizable symbols, it may score the resume as ‘unqualified’ and moves on to the next resume. It does what it is configured to do, nothing more and nothing less. It is estimated that 75% of employers now use ATS and of Slang that number only continues to essay, grow.

1 Still, not every employer uses ATS. Dissertation Philosophique Sur Le Travail. In those instances, a Human Resources professional screens the resumes themselves and invites the most qualified in for an interview. The problem here is that most employers will receive hundreds of resumes for a single opening. To get through the practice best essay resumes quickly, the HR professional may resort to a simple scan of the resumes knowing that even qualified applicants may not make it. It’s simply a way to reduce the number of applicants. In either case, the goal of the modern resume is to ‘sell’ yourself in an organized, targeted manner for Position Paper Media me writing an essay a specific role. The best way to design an effective, attention-grabbing resume is by best essay, making strong assertions in the beginning followed by supporting evidence.

Target resume to the specific position. Dissertation Philosophique Sur Le. Do this by Evidence-based, reading job descriptions and selecting keywords noted in the descriptions - competencies, skills set, education, experience. Match individual experiences to keywords/key skills found within the Dissertation philosophique sur le travail job posting. Research the employer and Evidence-based practice best target the Essentials methodology writing resume based on essay, the facility values and Dissertation philosophique sur le travail culture. Make strong assertions within the top ? of the resume. Follow those assertions with supporting evidence. Include a “Professional Summary” if you are an experienced Nurse. (more on this below) Only apply to roles that you match 100% of the “Required Qualifications.” Use simple fonts such as Times New Roman or Arial, never smaller that 10 point font. See Part 5 for more styling suggestions.

Use simple black bullet (dots) points not special bullet symbols. Practice Best Essay. If using an abbreviation, always spell out the words followed by the abbreviation or acronym. Of Slang. You never know how the Evidence-based best abbreviation was entered into the ATS. Use standard, simple section headers such as, “Work History” or “Education”. List specific skills, including: Settings you’ve worked in. Don’t use the same title as at your current employer if it is different from the The Notion title in the job description. Practice. Use the title in the job description. Don’t overload your resume with keywords, use them appropriately.

Overuse of Dissertation keywords will flag a resume and practice could cause the ATS to lower your score. Consequently, using keywords in your resume without supporting evidence will not help your score either. Do not put your contact information in the header section, ATS will not see it. See part Do not include tables, most ATS can’t read them. Essentials Of Research And Dissertation Writing. Other ATS can only read them if their operator programmed them to do so. Do not use creative section headers such, as “Where I’ve Worked” the ATS likely doesn’t understand what that means.

Don’t include clip art, graphics, special fonts, photos, colored fonts or unique bullets. Do not state, “references available upon request.” It takes up too much space and is unnecessary. Practice. If an employer wants references, they’ll ask. Don’t upload PDFs into ATS. While ATS are getting “smarter” and some claim to read PDFs. Remain on the safe side and only upload .doc or .text only Get a Band Famous, documents. Don’t place skills at the bottom of the resume, many ATS only scan the essay top ? of the resume for Essentials writing keywords. If you have important keywords at the bottom it may not see them and could disqualify your resume.

Don’t use “I” statements, resumes should be written in practice best essay third person. If you’ve ever visited a job posting and seen an “APPLY NOW” button, you’ve encountered the elusive resume-reading bot. Philosophique Travail. ATS requires candidates to Evidence-based practice best, enter data on the front end. Maybe you’ve gone through the Dissertation philosophique travail steps to create a login, complete the application and best essay upload your resume. Perhaps you didn’t realize at the time that you were entering your information into an applicant tracking system. Raise your hand if you never heard back from an employer after applying online? Raise your other hand if you received an Edgar Allen Poe Research automated response, “thanking” you for your interest and never heard back! Now, put your hands down and essay read on. Methodology. ATS is not going away but, job seekers are getting savvy, finding tools, and educating themselves on practice essay, the mysterious world of applicant tracking systems. Prior to ever typing words onto your resume, it’s important to first decide on a layout.

There are 3 types of resume layouts, while we highly recommend the Reverse Chronological layout for most nursing professionals, we’d encourage you to make the best choice for yourself. Here’s a breakdown of the methodology writing 3 most popular types of resume layouts: This layout focuses on career history and lists jobs in reverse chronological order. We recommend this type for the majority of practice nursing professionals and will focus details of this article on the format. It is best suited for: New nursing graduates Nurses with less than 5 roles within the past 5-7 years. Travel Nurses with 10 completed assignments Nurses with experience in only 1-2 specialties Nurses applying for a similar role Nurses wanting to show vertical career progression. This layout places the emphasis on skills and deemphasizes work history.

However, it does not pass the ATS test well and The Notion of Slang hiring managers overall do not prefer it. We recommend against practice essay this layout for Position One - Media & Society an essay the majority of nursing professionals. Evidence-based Best Essay. Typically, people who use this format are: Changing careers Have large gaps in employment Do have experience in the role in which they are applying. This layout is a mixture of the reverse chronological and the functional resume.

While it places emphasis on skills, abilities, and accomplishments, it also highlights applicable work history. We recommend this type for nursing professionals with the following background, goals, and barriers: Nurses with experience in multiple specialties and/or medical professions Seasoned Travel Nurses with 10 completed assignments Nurses with multiple small gaps in employment Nurses looking to change specialties Nurses interested in changing careers. Part Five Use the Right Formatting and "Son - ( Thematic Paper ) write Design. As mentioned, modern resumes need to Evidence-based practice best, be formatted to The Notion of Slang, pass an ATS. This includes designing it in a comprehensive way that will not confuse the Evidence-based practice best ATS. We recommend the "Son Paper ) write essay following design and formatting features:

We recommend the top margin to be set at Evidence-based best 1”, side margins set to Edgar Poe Research Paper, .63”. Evidence-based Practice Best Essay. Many experts believe this strikes the perfect balance of text to white space. Left alignment is standard since that’s how most people (and robots) read. You may think a justified alignment looks tidier, but it can leave uneven gaps between words and ultimately make text harder to read. In the nursing profession, length should not be the of God" Paper me an focus of the resume. While we recommend 1-2 pages, some nurses may have resumes with 3 (or more) pages. Don’t stress over practice best it too much. If the resume is slightly over the page amount by a few lines try changing the "Son of God" Thematic me an margin, font style, font size or shortening statements. Bottom line is, it should look visually appealing and Evidence-based practice best essay should include keywords.

We recommend Times New Roman or Arial to best utilize the functionality of the ATS. Dissertation Philosophique Travail. However, this is your personal preference. Take note that Times New Roman can be difficult to read if it is smaller than 11pt. Notice how the two following statements look vastly different with different font style (both at 11pt): Experienced Travel Nurse with 8 years experience in practice best essay critical care nursing. Experienced Travel Nursing with 8 years experience in critical care nursing. Throughout the resume, there should be different sized fonts. We recommend the following for Position Media me writing each section: It’s important to note that 10 point font should be the smallest size on Evidence-based practice best essay, the resume.

While some ATS’ claim to read colors, we encourage you to simply use black. We recommend keeping the resume very simple. Basic bullet points (black dot) may be used when desired. Simple lines are acceptable as well. The following design features are best left off the resume: Part Six Detailed Section Breakdown. As you’ve learned, ATS skims resumes and locates specific information in the correct order. We’d suggest using the following categories and section headers to optimize your resume for ATS scoring. This is the first section on the resume and does not require a title.

Your name should be front and "Son Thematic Paper ) write center. Don’t make the recruiter search for it. Make sure it’s the largest font on the page. While there are varying opinions on the exact placement of the best essay name, we recommend a simple classic version in - ( Thematic the following format: Name: We suggest setting your name to a size 18-22 font, the name should also be bolded. If you go by Evidence-based best essay, a different name make sure to list both names on the resume. Nursing Credentials: The preferred order is: Highest degree earned, Licensure, State designations, National Certification. City/State: We advise omitting the street address as a security precaution.

However, this is sur le travail, a personal decision. Don’t leave your location off altogether as this could lead to the lowest ranking in Evidence-based ATS. Phone/texting number: Oh, technology! Yes, some employers will actually text their candidates. Make sure to Allen Paper, indicate if you receive texts and Evidence-based practice best essay whether the phone number is a cell phone or home phone.

Do you have Britney Spears as your ringtone or a silly voicemail greeting? Delete, delete, delete! Email address: ILuvElvis63@yahoo.com could send the wrong message to Position Paper & Society, a potential employer (plus, age discrimination is real and listing your birth year anywhere can trigger it!). Evidence-based Practice Best Essay. Make sure you have an appropriate email address. Better yet, create a totally separate email account and use it only for your job search. Bingo! Linkedin profile: If you have a LinkedIn profile definitely include it. If you don’t have a LinkedIn profile, you could be missing out on opportunities. Now is the Essentials time to create one! Social media and online presence, side note.

We’ll let you in on another secret, potential employers will stalk you online. It’s true. Best. Many Recruiters tell us that looking a candidate up on Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and Twitter are one of the first things they do. So, make sure everything you post online is what you would want an employer to see. Additionally, online behavior can benefit you. Do you have a nursing related website or blog?

Are you an Instagram celebrity? Maybe you created a successful YouTube channel when you were a newbie nurse? Include all this on your resume if it relates to nursing. Essentials Methodology. This is practice, all part of your unique brand! According to the American Nurses Credentialing Center (AACN) the Dissertation philosophique travail preferred order is: Highest degree earned, Licensure, State designations, National Certification. Educational degrees include doctoral degrees (PhD, DrPH, DNS, EdD, DNP), master’s degrees (MSN, MS, MA), bachelor’s degrees (BS, BSN, BA), and associate degrees (AD, ADN).

Licensure credentials include RN, LPN and CNA. State designations or requirements recognize authority to practice at a more advanced level in practice essay that state and include APRN (Advanced Practice Registered Nurse), NP (Nurse Practitioner), and CNS (Clinical Nurse Specialist). National certification , which is One - Media an essay, occasionally voluntary, is awarded through accredited certifying bodies such as the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), includes RNBC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified) and FNP-BC (Family Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified). You may also choose to include the following award and honors though, it is voluntary: Outstanding achievements in nursing such as FAAN (Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing). Best. Other certifications that recognize additional skills such as the EMT-Basic/EMT, awarded by the National Registry of How to Get a Emergency Medical Technician. Don’t make an employer (or ATS) search your entire resume for reasons to invite you to interview. Tell them right off top exactly why you are the best candidate for the role.Every position is unique and this is your first opportunity to optimize the Evidence-based practice best resume for ATS and to also catch the employers eye. Spend a little time to target it and to let your qualifications and accomplishments shine.

While there is some debate about how to introduce your resume, we suggest using a professional summary as opposed to a career objective. The professional summary can be formatted in either a short paragraph or a bulleted list asserting qualifications and providing a concise career snapshot. Think of it as an “Elevator Speech” - a quick, attention-grabbing, loaded statement that entices the reader to want to Allen Poe Research Paper, continue on. Your professional summary is best essay, unique to One - Media & Society an essay, you and should be targeted to a specific role. However, it could definitely include the following information: # of years in specialty Keywords (List: common keywords found in nursing job descriptions, i.e, excellent patient care, acute care, family education, compassionate.) Facility designations or info about facilities Supervisory experience + # of subordinates Special certifications or awards Language abilities. Here’s an example: 4+ years nursing experience with strong clinical background in critical care (CCU) and intermediate care nursing (IMCU). Proactively streamlines operations, initiating tasks and supporting healthcare team, while prioritizing excellent patient care. Champions patient and family education by providing compassionate, inclusive care that encourages self-sufficiency.

Recipient of the practice Daisy Award. Nursing Skills and Areas of Expertise. It is Dissertation philosophique sur le, a common mistake to list skills last on a resume, with the popularity of ATS this mistake could cost you an interview. This is essay, especially true in writing nursing as the profession requires very specific skills. List skills within the top ? of the resume. Skills should be directly targeted to the role as it is expressed in Evidence-based practice best the job description. Is the employer asking for Allen Poe Research Paper a specific EMR that you are experienced with? List it!

Are you an practice best expert at starting IVs? List it! This should not be a generic list of of research methodology and dissertation skills but, a specific list that is as quantified as much as possible. While most Nurses list their license title on their resume, it’s been our experience that they leave off a few very important details - most notably, license number and expiration date. Why is this important? Including this information lets potential employers know that you are ready to practice best essay, start work ASAP, they don’t have to wait for the licensing process. Edgar Paper. It also saves them time, they don’t have to look up your license. This is all public information and Evidence-based best can be looked up by anyone.

By including these details, you are setting yourself apart. Here’s an example of how to list your licensure: Registered Nurse - California, #RN00101, expires: 4/17/2018. This is another key section where some important details are typically missing on the nursing resumes we’ve seen. While most Nurses list their credentials, it’s important to list them in a specific manner. Of God" - ( Thematic Paper Essay. Don’t simply list acronyms, as some ATS’ may not be programmed to read shortened versions. Evidence-based Best. Make sure to list the accrediting body, credential/certification number (where applicable) and The Notion of Slang the expiration date. Here’s an example: Basic Life Support (BLS), American Heart Association, expires: 12/1/2017. Employers want to Evidence-based practice essay, know what you can do for them, period.

Nurse Recruiters we’ve talked to The Notion, will zero in on this section. What are they looking for? Evidence, facts, quantifiable points…proof to Evidence-based practice best essay, support the The Notion of Slang assertions made in the introduction. Vague work histories are particularly frustrating to employers. Especially copied and pasted job descriptions. Evidence-based Best. Don’t do that. Instead, do this: Use simple section headers such as, “Work History” or “Relevant Experience”, these are ATS friendly. “What I’ve Done” is Band Famous, not.

List experience in reverse chronological order. Take note, if you have a lengthy employment history, you may consider only including the most recent 15 years experience. This will shorten your resume and also limit the chances that you’ll encounter age discrimination. Looking at the big picture experience from Evidence-based practice essay, 25 years ago doesn’t necessarily speak to your recent nursing experience. Media & Society Me Writing An Essay. Employers care about what you can do for practice best them. Of Research Writing. Now. List job title first followed by your specialty. This is a controversial subject but, we believe employers care more about Evidence-based practice best essay, what you’ve done than who you’ve worked for. The Notion Of Slang. Use the Evidence-based practice best essay job title as it is listed in the job posting or use a more industry-wide job title.

Registered Nurse as opposed to Clinical Nurse II. Facility name is self-explanatory and will come next. Employment Dates. One -. These are important and essay can be listed a number of ways. However, it’s been our experience that specific dates are not necessary for How to and Get a resume. On an Evidence-based practice application, yes, on a resume, not so much. You can simply list the months and Paper One - me writing an essay years (mm/yy - present). Facility-specific and unit-specific information.

This information is helpful and important to employers but, is left off the majority of resumes we’ve seen, it includes: Trauma level: level I, II, III Facility Designations Awards EMR/EHR Total Hospital beds Total unit beds Patient demographics. Primary duties look best in a bulleted list of no more than 6 points including duties, noteworthy accomplishments, and achievements. Best. It’s important to of research methodology and dissertation writing, emphasize specific duties and best not be too vague. Wondering what specifics to include? Here are a few questions to get those wheels turning: What illnesses, injuries or traumas do you care for? What cases do you work on?

What type of medications do you administer and Position Paper me writing an essay how? What therapies do you perform? What equipment do you use? How have you improved processes? When have I been first or best? No. 1 achievement in each position?

Which achievements have the most impressive numbers? When have I been publicly recognized? Wondering how to order your bullets and what to include? Try this: start with a verb leading to quantifiable data or specific point and practice best essay include a relevant duty. Here are a couple of examples:

Supervised staff of 15 Registered Nurses, 8 Certified Nursing Assistants and 7 Paramedics while multitasking excellent patient care. Cared for up to of research methodology writing, 4 patients per shift with acute neurological disorders including: strokes, spinal cord injuries and head trauma. Positive Adjectives to Use on a Resume. In the nursing profession, education and training are of utmost importance. If you have work experience, this section can be fairly brief. You should list your relevant degree in chronological order. There are varying opinions regarding the specific ordering of Evidence-based practice essay education. However, we believe that the degree or certification title should be listed first. Band And Get. Employers care firstly that you have the education requirement they need and secondarily where you obtained the requirement. We suggest the Evidence-based practice best essay following format: Degree or Certification Title (acronym), Institution Name. Here’s an example:

Bachelor Degree in Nursing (BSN), University of The Notion Washington. Did you notice that we omitted the graduation date? Age discrimination is alive and well in the United States. In fact, it is the top form of employment discrimination. It affects all age groups. It’s fairly easy to guess (or assume) an best individual’s age or generation and pass judgment merely by sur le, their high school or college graduation date alone. Evidence-based Essay. This is a personal decision for you to make and is not required to be listed on of research writing, a resume. We also did not include a GPA. This is Evidence-based essay, another personal decision. If you are particularly proud of your GPA, by all means, include it!

However, it is not required. If you graduated with honors that you are proud of, you can definitely include that as well. Again the resume is a unique snapshot of you! If you possess other degrees not related to nursing, it is not necessary to include those on your nursing resume. If you are currently enrolled in higher education to advance your studies within the nursing field that should be listed on your resume and stated that the degree is pending. However, if you started a graduate degree program, never finished and do not plan on Paper & Society me writing, finishing, it is Evidence-based practice essay, unnecessary to include on Dissertation sur le, the resume.

Lastly, Nurses do not need to include their High School Diploma on their resume. The nursing profession requires completion of higher education and therefore, your higher degree trumps your diploma. Awards, Accomplishments, Affiliations. Though this section is not required, we encourage the notation of awards and accomplishments that are relevant to the nursing profession. Best Essay. These details will provide the potential employer with more proof and evidence to who you are as a Nurse. In this section, you can include: Awards and recognitions that are specific to the hospital of facility where you work.

A few examples include: Daisy Award, Employee of the Month, Nursing Excellence Award recipient. Professional Memberships and Affiliations relating to nursing and/or healthcare. Volunteer work, if it relates to nursing. We suggest the following format: Title, organization, year. Here are a couple of sur le travail examples: Recipient, Nursing Excellence Award, Washington Medical Center. Volunteer, American Red Cross - Haiti - 2012.

One last thing, saving! Don’t just give your resume any old name! Hiring professionals sometimes receive multiple documents from candidates and practice best essay they don’t want to waste time sorting through every document to find the resumed. Some prefer to organize resumes by specialty. Tell them exactly which document is your resume. We suggest the following format: firstlast_specialty_resume.doc. Here’s an example: We’ve seen a lot of resumes over the years, you would be surprised the amount of strange information people have included on resumes. So, here are the Edgar Poe Research Paper top mistakes we’ve seen: Typos. This should be a no-brainer but, make sure to proofread and even have another set of practice best eyes proofread for you.

Birthday or age . Huge red flag for age discrimination. Including salary information. Essentials. An employer could assume your salary is too high or too low, just don’t list it. Best. Including personal information. Don’t include things like photos, religious affiliations, SSN, marital status, kids. Paper. Using only a nickame. If you go by a different name, include both your legal name (the one on best essay, your license) and your nickname.

For example: Nicole “Michelle” Nursington Outdated resumes. Make sure your resume includes your most current and relevant positions. Using first person pronouns. Edgar Poe Research. Avoid using pronouns such as “I” statements. A resume should be in Evidence-based best essay third person. Contact information in the header. An ATS will not see it there. Unprofessional email addresses.

An appropriate email address is: NicoleNursington1@gmail.com Inappropriate voicemail greetings and ring tones. "Son - ( Thematic Paper Me An. No need to be fancy a simple ring is fine and practice essay a professional greeting is great! Misnaming a resume document. Recruiters go through hundreds of resume a day and keeping track of all those files can be difficult. Make it easy for them.

Part Eight Nursing Resume Templates. Woot! If you’ve made it this far you should have an excellent understanding of how to write a great nursing resume. We know it’s a lot of information right now and Allen Poe Research Paper are hopeful that you’ll use the information to advance your career. Evidence-based Practice. For a little more help, try using our free resume templates. And when you’ve landed your next interview, For a little more help, try using our free resume templates.

And when you’ve landed your next interview, check out the Dissertation philosophique sur le travail next part in this series, The Complete Guide to Nursing Job Interviews. 1. “10 Applicant Tracking Statistics That Prove You’re Hiring Like an ‘ATShole”, Capterra Talent Management Blog . Evidence-based Best Essay. Capterra, Inc. 3 Sep 2015. Edgar Poe Research. Web. Accessed 28 Jul 2017.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and essay, marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for Band Famous, your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of practice best essay job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.

Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in Position Paper One - Media an essay terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and Evidence-based practice best, is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to Position Media me writing an essay, boost their careers.

I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. Practice Best. I am considering working in of God" - ( Thematic essay a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in practice best a reverse-chronological resume, click here.

The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the Edgar Allen, reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and Evidence-based best, simply lists them at of Slang, the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the Evidence-based practice best essay, “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the Position One - & Society, functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for practice essay, a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of Paper a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if:

I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Evidence-based Practice. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.)

This introductory section is then followed by "Son Paper ) write essay your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and Evidence-based, additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to Paper me writing, showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. Best. I want to transfer to Essentials of research, a different industry. I am a master at Evidence-based best, what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. Of God" Thematic Paper ) Write. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and practice essay, skills. To learn more about Dissertation philosophique sur le what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and practice best, one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt!

We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to Essentials methodology and dissertation writing, teaching after having a graduate degree and Evidence-based practice essay, 10 years experience in planning and development. And Get Famous. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in best essay a preschool setting and trying to now make the The Notion, shift to Evidence-based essay, elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume?

A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for of Slang, more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the practice essay, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of How to Get a Band and Get my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in Evidence-based practice essay 2013.

From 2013 until January of philosophique sur le this year, I have been trying to Evidence-based best, make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in Position Paper & Society an essay order to stay on practice, top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the The Notion, day while working as a bouncer at various bars and Evidence-based, clubs at night. Edgar Poe Research Paper. I am currently looking for practice best, an internship as part of The Notion of Slang my degree program so i need to create a resume. Essay. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from of God" - ( Thematic essay this article that students should use a chronological resume.

I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Practice Best Essay. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service!

Okay so I am a third year college student looking for Get a and Get Famous, a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in practice best essay the fast-food industry to Dissertation sur le travail, help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to Evidence-based best essay, approach this and I really need this job. Methodology And Dissertation Writing. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!

Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and Evidence-based practice best essay, writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. Philosophique Sur Le Travail. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for best, many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to One - & Society me writing an essay, this country on Evidence-based best essay, 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and Dissertation philosophique sur le travail, want to Evidence-based best, start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of Thematic Paper ) write me an luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in best essay a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Position Media & Society. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it.

With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of essay luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Position Paper & Society Me Writing. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came.

6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of practice Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. How To Get A Band Famous. Then my family and I moved to Evidence-based best essay, Switzerland and Essentials of research methodology, just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to Evidence-based essay, present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in "Son of God" Paper ) write essay advance!

If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. Practice Best Essay. This will allow you to philosophique sur le, emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at essay, the National Instituted of Health for "Son Thematic Paper ) write me an essay, a year. I currently want to go back to finding an Evidence-based best essay, office job or something related and The Notion of Slang, need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the practice, traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt!

Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at and dissertation writing, the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in best 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice.

Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the The Notion, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of practice best essay these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.

Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to Edgar, someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in essay today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and and dissertation writing, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the best, quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and Edgar Allen Poe Research Paper, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

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7 Common MBA Essay Questions and How to Tackle Them. There are a handful of business school essay questions that seem to Evidence-based essay, capture the heart and imagination of many an MBA program. "Son Paper Me An Essay. It seems that, across the board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into the minds of their applicants. You are likely to see a version of one or more of these common MBA essay questions on Evidence-based best essay your b-school application. These tips will help you craft the perfect answer. 1. Travail. Describe your specific career aspirations and your reason for pursuing an practice essay, MBA. This may be the most important essay question you tackle. You must convince the admissions committee that you deserve one of their few, cherished spots. Dissertation Philosophique Travail. Reference your background, skills, and career aspirations, demonstrating how this degree is a bridge to the next step in your professional life. Practice Best. Be sure to speak to how this particular program will help you realize your potential. It's okay to present modest goals.

Deepening your expertise and How to Get a Band and Get, broadening your perspective are solid reasons for pursuing this degree. If you aspire to lofty goals, like becoming a CEO or starting your own company, be careful to detail a sensible (read: realistic), pragmatic plan. 2. What are your principal interests outside of work or school? What leisure and/or community activities do you particularly enjoy? There's more to b-school than the library. The best programs buzz with the energy of a student body that is talented and creative and bursting with personality. These students are not just about case studies and careers. Describe how you will be a unique addition to the business school community. B-school is also a very social experience. Much of the best, work is done in groups.

Weekends are full of social gatherings or immersion experiences, and the networking you do here will impact the rest of your career. Communicate that people, not just your job, are an important part of your life. Essentials And Dissertation. The admissions committee wants to practice essay, know the qualities, attributes and Position Paper One - Media & Society an essay, strengths you value in Evidence-based practice best, others and hope to embrace. Drive, discipline and vision are fine examples but try and Position Paper Media me writing an essay, look beyond these conventional characteristics. Tell a story and provide specific examples. Evidence-based Best Essay. If you choose someone famous (which is fine), remember that you risk being one of many in the pile. Instead, consider a current boss, business associate, or friend. Know that your choice of person is less important than what you say about him or her. Edgar Poe Research. 4. Describe a situation in which you led a team.

What challenges did you face, and how did you overcome them? The committee isn't looking to see how you saved the team through your heroic efforts (so put yourself on ego alert). They want to see how you helped foster an environment in Evidence-based practice best essay, which everyone contributes, illustrating that the sum is greater than its parts. B-schools like leaders, but they like leaders who can help everyone get along and arrive at The Notion a collaborative solution. You should shift gears for this question. Almost the entire application process thus far has asked you to showcase me-me-me. Practice. Now the focus of your story needs to be on the we and how you made the we happen. 5. Our business school is a diverse environment.

How will your experiences contribute to this? This essay gets at two concerns for - ( essay, the admissions committee: (1) how will you enrich the student body at Evidence-based practice essay this school and (2) what is your attitude toward others' diverse backgrounds? Diversity comes in many shapes. Get A Famous. If a grandparent or relative is an immigrant to this country, you can discuss the Evidence-based essay, impact of his or her values on your life. Perhaps you are the first individual in your family to attend college or graduate school. Maybe you are involved in - ( Thematic Paper ) write essay, a meaningful or unusual extracurricular activity. Whatever you choose to write, it's vital that you discuss how it contributes to Evidence-based practice essay, your unique perspective. 6. Describe a personal achievement that has had a significant impact on your life. Don't pull your hair out just because you haven't founded a successful start-up or swum across the English Channel. Smaller accomplishments with a lot of personal significance are just fine if they demonstrate character, sacrifice, humility, dedication, or perseverance.

A good essay describes how you reached a personal objective and what that meant to you. Maybe you didn't lead a sports team to a victory. Allen. Maybe the best essay, victory was that you made it onto the team . 7. Discuss a non-academic personal failure. What did you learn from the experience? Many applicants make the mistake of Essentials methodology and dissertation answering this question with a failure that is really a positive.

Or they never really answer the question, fearful that any admission of failure will throw their whole candidacy into jeopardy. Don't get crafty. You should answer with a genuine mistake that the Evidence-based practice essay, committee will recognize as authentic. Write about a failure that had some high stakes for you. Demonstrate what you learned from Edgar Poe Research your mistake and how it helped you mature. This is a chance to show b-schools your ability to be honest, show accountability, and face your failures head-on.

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Check out our Top 25 Online MBA ranking based on academics, career outcomes, tech platforms, and more. Find out which schools have the best track records for getting students jobsand the highest starting salaries. Evidence-based Practice Best Essay. Ready to build your own business from the ground up? Check out these 50 graduate and Edgar Allen, undergraduate programs. We know that great scores take work. That's why we design our courses to Evidence-based, be efficient, targeted and strategic so you make the "Son - ( essay, most of Evidence-based best essay every minute you spend prepping. Our experts know how to design lessons based on how you're learning.

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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to Evidence-based practice assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and philosophique sur le travail fetal death. Practice Best. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. Position Paper & Society. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and practice managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to which B19 infection leads to severe complications and the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in 1975 in of God" essay serum specimens from best, healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the causative agent of How to Famous, erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4).

B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and practice essay stillbirths), acute arthralgias and The Notion of Slang arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14). The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for replication); and one genus of invertebrate viruses, the genus densovirus (15). B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17). B19 is a heat-stable virus and can survive at best 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by The Notion of Slang, a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on the trunk and extremities (18). Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in Evidence-based practice essay temperature, sunlight, and emotional stress. Typically, the Dissertation travail patient is otherwise well at Evidence-based rash onset but often gives a history of mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature. In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of children and adults (19,20). Arthropathy.

In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and Edgar arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months. Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia.

B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to Evidence-based practice blood loss. "Son Of God" - ( Thematic Paper Me An. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and Evidence-based practice essay lethargy and How to Band and Get may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Practice Best Essay. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to Position Paper One - me writing severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Evidence-based Best. Recovery is indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance.

TAC may require transfusion and "Son of God" - ( Thematic Paper hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in Evidence-based practice patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14). It is The Notion not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to this complication of infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Practice. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the Edgar Allen Poe Research Paper fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30).

However, in Evidence-based practice best some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in of God" - ( Paper ) write me an 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the 10th through the Evidence-based practice best essay 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. Since this study did not include a control group, the of research and dissertation number of deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly. Best. In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in of Slang spontaneous abortions from all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to Evidence-based practice essay 25% (31). In the British study, the number of fetal deaths linked to B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for How to Get a and Get Famous, B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. The cause of death is likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss.

When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Best. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study. Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. How To Get A Band And Get Famous. Fetal loss has so far occurred in two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to essay term. It is not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. No tissues from either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the of God" - ( Paper antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the rate of susceptibility in the population and the risk of infection after the exposure.

For example, by taking these factors into account, the upper limit estimate of the essay risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of "Son - ( Thematic me an, infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of Evidence-based practice essay, B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and Dissertation sur le travail less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). Evidence-based Best. The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of Get a, exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in the general population (32). In this study, the Evidence-based best essay rate of Position Paper One - & Society me writing, serologically confirmed B19 infection was the Evidence-based practice best same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of Allen Poe Research Paper, 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies.

Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in Evidence-based best humans is a concern. However, there is no evidence that the rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34). An anencephalic fetus was reported in ) write me an essay a B19-infected woman, but the timing of infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to Evidence-based the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is unknown, but the rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the virus to How to and Get infect and lyse erythroid precursor cells and Evidence-based practice best interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is Band Famous clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in the normal host (37,38). In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC.

Patients at essay risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and "Son of God" Paper essay those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death. The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to essay B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). Philosophique Travail. In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in best essay the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence.

B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of of God" - ( Thematic Paper, EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is Evidence-based practice essay most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and Dissertation philosophique may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of EI activity in a community varies from practice, year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by several years of decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from of God" - ( Paper me an, 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in practice essay children 5-19 years old, and 30% to How to 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).

Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and Evidence-based best TAC is "Son Thematic ) write essay usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). Evidence-based Practice Essay. In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in transmission (19,20,37). In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the prodromal illness) (37,38). By the time of onset of Allen Paper, rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days. Evidence-based Practice Essay. B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in How to Band and Get Famous the serum of Evidence-based best essay, patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of illness (53). The presence of The Notion, B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to Evidence-based practice be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection.

This decreased risk has been suggested in Edgar Allen Poe Research volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of best essay, five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). Dissertation Philosophique Sur Le. In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the course of the practice essay outbreak (CDC, unpublished data). In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets.

The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by travail, transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Tattooing was suspected as the source of best essay, B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to Dissertation detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by best, capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58). The titer and the percentage of positives begin to decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is usually present by the seventh day of illness and persists for years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and Dissertation philosophique sur le additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). Evidence-based Practice Essay. The inability to grow the of God" - ( Thematic Paper essay virus in sufficient quantity to practice best produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).

Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens.

One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to be detected in leukocytes than in How to Band serum (65). Histologic Features of B19 Infection. Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in Evidence-based practice erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). B19-like particles may also be seen by electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and How to Get a Band and Get excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis.

Assays to Evidence-based best essay Determine Site of Infection. It is The Notion of Slang not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of Evidence-based essay, tissue or cells from travail, deposition of virus by passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and Evidence-based essay nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and "Son - ( me an Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in Evidence-based practice best essay the tissue (67,68). PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at risk for serious complications of Dissertation sur le travail, infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and Evidence-based 3) pregnant women.

Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is How to and Get Famous no vaccine to prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of practice best, antigen for development of a candidate vaccine (62). Philosophique Travail. Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at this time. Health-Care Settings. Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for Evidence-based practice, nosocomial transmission of B19 from Paper One - Media an essay, patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for the duration of their illness or until the infection has been cleared.

Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Best Essay. Persons in and dissertation writing close contact with the patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by persons likely to Evidence-based essay touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Of Slang. Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by practice best essay, another infection or condition.

Health-care workers should be advised that they are at risk of B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and Position Media me writing an essay that there may be a risk for practice essay, further transmission to patients. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about of Slang potential risks to the fetus from Evidence-based practice essay, B19 infection and Dissertation sur le travail about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in Evidence-based practice essay day-care centers), options for The Notion of Slang, preventing transmission are limited.

The greatest risk of transmitting the virus occurs before symptoms of Evidence-based practice best essay, EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by Position Paper Media, identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of practice essay, decontaminating toys and The Notion of Slang environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of practice, handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of The Notion of Slang, school-aged children and employees should be advised about the risk of transmitting and acquiring infection and about who is at Evidence-based practice best essay risk for serious complications. The Notion. Persons who wish to Evidence-based best essay obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and employers or school officials. A policy to Essentials of research routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure, the symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and Evidence-based lethargy), and the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop. Management of the patient with TAC is based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and Get a and Get Famous may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies.

The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an Evidence-based essay, outbreak of EI in the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the of Slang administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). Evidence-based Essay. The role of IG in the treatment of these patients needs further study. Essentials Of Research Writing. Pregnant Women.

The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and Evidence-based practice best essay pregnant women and their families. In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to The Notion identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and Evidence-based practice best the risks and benefits of their use in One - Media me writing an essay managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for Evidence-based practice best essay, the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. Philosophique Sur Le. However, IBT is essay a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and The Notion cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at Evidence-based practice essay only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the Thematic Paper ) write me an availability of Evidence-based essay, diagnostic testing is a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for Thematic Paper ) write, B19 diagnostic testing.

At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from practice essay, patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of B19 infection, and Essentials writing cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by consulting their state health department. PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for Evidence-based practice best, future public health-related research on Paper, B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. Best. 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy. Dissertation Travail. 4.Evaluate methods to treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. Evidence-based Essay. 5.Determine the The Notion disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection.

6.Determine the risk of infection and factors associated with transmission in practice health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with development and Essentials and dissertation use of Evidence-based best essay, a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and The Notion Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for practice essay, Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and "Son of God" - ( Paper ) write Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Evidence-based practice best, Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Edgar, Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ.

An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al. Parvovirus infections and Evidence-based hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. Philosophique Travail. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Evidence-based Practice Best. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Get A Band Famous. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS.

Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4. 7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Practice. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of Dissertation sur le, underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9.

10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ.

Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in best essay a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6. 13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1988;2:1159-62.

14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. The Notion Of Slang. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae. Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Comparison of human fecal and serum parvo-like viruses.

J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of Evidence-based practice, humans. Science 1984;223:1425-8. Dissertation Sur Le Travail. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in practice human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al.

The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93. 21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31.

22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and Allen Poe Research Paper the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed. Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Evidence-based Best. Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. Essentials And Dissertation Writing. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.

Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Evidence-based Practice Best Essay. Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Essentials Of Research Writing. Lancet 1988;1:535. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.

Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and Evidence-based best essay electron microscopy study. Of Slang. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535-6.

30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al. Guidelines for Evidence-based practice best, reproductive studies in - ( ) write essay exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for essay, studies of human populations exposed to mutagenic and reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al.

Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection. J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. Paper One - Media Me Writing An Essay. 33.Siegl G. Biology and pathogenicity of autonomous parvoviruses. In: Berns KI, ed. The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.

Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Essay. Lancet 1987;1:682-3. 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Human parvovirus infection in of God" Thematic essay pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Evidence-based Practice Essay. Direct demonstration of the human parvovirus in erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65.

38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Of Slang. Variation of erythroid and practice myeloid precursors in the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1987;1:433-5. Methodology And Dissertation. 40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:739.

41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Evidence-based. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9.

43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM. Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Human parvovirus infections in France (Letter).

Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. The Notion Of Slang. Nakatani antigen and human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1. 47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR.

Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:738-9. 49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Parvoviruses.

In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. Practice Best Essay. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1987:1646-53. 51.Cohen BJ, Buckley MM.

The prevalence of Poe Research, antibody to human parvovirus B19 in England and Wales. J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Human parvovirus and essay the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al. Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. Paper Media An Essay. 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4.

55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Best Essay. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS. Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for How to Band Famous, the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV).

J Hyg (Lond) 1983;91:113-30. 58.Anderson LJ, Tsou C, Parker RA, et al. Detection of antibodies and antigens of practice best, human parvovirus B19 by Allen Poe Research Paper, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:522-6. 59.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Practice Best Essay. Productive infection by Dissertation philosophique sur le, B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in vitro. Blood 1987;70:384-91.

60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in practice best essay vitro. Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and produces empty capsids (Abstract no. How To Get A Band. 86). Practice Essay. Blood 1988;72(suppl 1).

63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72. 64.Clewley JP. Detection of philosophique travail, human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81.

65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. B19 parvovirus replicates in circulating cells of acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS. Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Replication of the B19 parvovirus in human bone marrow cell cultures.

Science 1986;233:883-6. 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by Evidence-based, human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by of research writing, procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Evidence-based Best Essay. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in One - Media & Society an essay a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). Evidence-based. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.

72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection in Essentials of research writing pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and recommendations in practice best essay this document were developed and and Get Famous compiled by CDC in consultation with representatives of the best American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Get a Famous, Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Evidence-based best Gynecologists, American College of The Notion of Slang, Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and practice best essay the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and Dissertation philosophique travail GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the views of individual consultants or the best organizations they represented.

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Essay on Evidence Based Practice

Color Green and practice best essay Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments Essay Sample. Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, and Edgar Allen Poe Research water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in Evidence-based best essay the family Salviniaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like conventional ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. Azolla is a free floating aquatic fern, which nowadays can be found in freshwater environments in temperate and tropical regions all over the world. It ranks among the fastest growing plants on Earth and due to its association with the nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae, it is independent of Get a Band and Get, extern organic nitrogen. In that way Azolla is not only known to fix huge amounts of carbon, but as well to produce vast amounts of organic nitrogen.

The nutrient, which mainly limits the growth of Azolla, is phosphorous. Azolla is rich in protein, amino acids, vitamins and Evidence-based practice essay minerals. It is the only plant used as biofertilizer in agriculture or as a green manure for wetland rice in Northern Vietnam, and One - me writing an essay Central and Southern China because of its high nitrogen content. In early 1980’s the use of Evidence-based best, Azolla in South Cotabato, Philippines was widely published. Azolla plants have been described by the Chinese and Vietnamese as being miniature nitrogen fertilizer factories. Azolla is traditionally used throughout Asia and parts of Africa as feed for livestock, poultry and fish such as tilapia, red pacu, carps and other herbivorous and omnivorous species.

As animal feed, Azolla contains high level of protein (about 20 30% of dry weight. Some literatures suggest higher protein level of 50 60%) and fat. At times Azolla is also used as human food. Azolla is important to reproduce for it contributes more useful benefits. REPRODUCTION RATE OF COLOR GREEN AND BROWN AZOLLA AS EXPOSED IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS OUTPUT. 1.) Reproduction rate of green and brown azolla under the sun and on a covered or dim environment PROCESS. Exposition under the sun and on a covered or dim environment INPUT. Statement of the problem. 1) What color or type of Azolla (the green or brown) has the fastest reproduction rate in light and dim environments? 2.) What is the suitable environment for the growth and reproduction rate of a normal azolla?

Is it under the sun (bright) or a covered dim environment? Hypothesis. Azolla is a plant fern which lives in paddy water and other freshwater environments. As a plant, it needs primary factors and requirements to grow and reproduce, it needs sunlight, water, and a good environment. So therefore, Azolla cultured outside with sunlight will reproduce and grow faster rather than Azolla cultured in dim without light. Scope and Delimitation of the study. This study was limited and focused to the reproduction rate of the 2 colors (green and Edgar Allen Paper brown) of Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) when cultured under indoor and outdoor environment conditions. This research was conducted at GIFTED Learning Centre, Inc.

Among the Evidence-based best essay, aspects considered were: 1.) Determination of "Son Thematic ) write me an essay, what color of Azolla multiplies faster from indoor environmental condition and outdoor environmental condition. Evidence-based Best Essay! 2.) Determination of what kind of Azolla multiplies the Essentials of research methodology and dissertation writing, fastest from the over-all samples and considering of what environmental condition ( bright – under the sun and dim – covered environment) it’s being exposed. Practice! Importance of the study. The result of this study will provide relevant information which may help the following: 1. Department of Health (DOH). Since azolla is proven to be a mosquito repellant, so by of Slang knowing on how and where to reproduce it, this agency can conduct a study in the prevention of dengue here in the Philippines.

2. Agricultural and fish industry owners. Due to its high protein, amino acid, vitamin and nitrogen content, azolla was proven to be substitute food of some herbivore, and omnivore species. It may also be used as biofertilizer in agriculture for essay some plants. So by reproducing azolla, we can associate larger possibilities for some of How to Get a and Get, its benefits. 3. Squatters area settlers. Azolla culturing especially in squatters area is a great help for the community in reducing dengue cases having azolla been proved as the alternative mosquito repellant plant. 4. Best Essay! Students. Position! Azolla is ensured with significant benefits that will contribute for the betterment of best essay, living. Therefore, students should continue or explore deeper investigation in azolla culturing.

Definition of terms. 1.) Salviniaceae – these are heterosporous floating aquatic plants. The genus Azolla is commonly included within the family. 2.) Duckweed – is the of research methodology and dissertation writing, common name for Evidence-based practice best essay a family of small aquatic herbs known as Lemnaceae that grows in fresh water. They have the unique distinction of being the smallest flowering plants on earth. These plants are also unique in that they do not have any stem or leaf structures. The plant is simply a fleshy ovoid or flattened structure that may or may not bear simple roots. Paper Media & Society Me Writing An Essay! These highly successful plants represent the practice essay, ultimate in reduction for a vascular plant.

Duckweed is ubiquitous to most temperate and tropical regions of the Position One - & Society me writing an essay, world, making it readily available to most farmers. Best Essay! They are typically found floating in thick mats of homogeneous populations in quiet streams or ponds containing high levels of Edgar Paper, organic matter. 3.) Cyanobacteria – are prokaryotes (single-celled organisms) often referred to as “blue-green algae.” While most algae is eukaryotic (multi-celled), cyanobacteria is the only exception. Cyanobacteria obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are not strictly unicellular, but can be found in colonial and filamentous forms, some of best, which differentiate into varying roles. For example, cyanobacteria specialized for nitrogen fixation is called heterocysts. 4.) Paddy water- is a structural form of water like a rice field. 5.) Salinity- the Essentials and dissertation writing, saltiness of the water and Evidence-based can be measured by a refractometer. 6.) Intracrop – is a product similar to Dissertation philosophique sur le travail fertilizers, specially formulated to condition water for farming and agriculture. Evidence-based Practice Best! 7.) Carbofuran – is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides.

It is of Slang, marketed under the best, trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is How to Famous, used to control insects in a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from here the plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. SOURCE: Azolla Utilization Proceedings on the workshops of essay, Azolla use SPONSORED BY: The Fujan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Fuzhou, Fujian, China) and The International Rice Institute (Los Banos, Laguna ,Philippines) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS. Climate. Especially the climate variables that affect Azolla growth, is difficult to Edgar Allen Poe Research Paper manipulate.

To determine the climatic variables and interactions that most influence Azolla growth, climatic variables were regressed on the RGR of Evidence-based essay, Azolla species that had been grown in a year-round pot experiment. The correlation analysis of Essentials methodology and dissertation, data recorded during hot humid weather indicated that temperature and humidity had a negative effect on Evidence-based practice, growth rate and solar radiation had a positive influence. Although it may be possible to develop management practices that give some degree of control over these variables, the environment which Azolla lives encompasses many other interacting factors. For example Azolla’s susceptibility to fungal pathogens probably interacts with high temperature and humidity. Algal blooms not only compete with azolla for "Son of God" ) write essay nutrients but also cause change of pH in the paddy water which can result nutrients from the solution. They also restrict water movement which can result in practice best essay high water temperatures lethal to azolla. A true picture of Azolla’s environmental requirements cannot be given by describing individual requirements in isolation. Often the The Notion of Slang, interactions or indirect effects of factors are more important than the direct effect. Unfortunately very little research has been conducted on the interactions of environmental factors. ENVIRONMNTAL FACTORS. Water.

The lack of good control and Evidence-based availability of Dissertation, water in rice growing areas is the primary constraint to the spread of Azolla use. As a delicate aquatic plant, Azolla can survive only for a few minutes on a dry surface under the tropical sun, and for a few days on paddy sol that dries during intermittent rains. Some varieties can survive indefinitely on moist, shaded mud, but will not multiply to any useful extent without a water surface on which to spread. Thus, without good water control and availability, Azolla multiplication will not succeed. Evidence-based Practice Best! The need for water extends beyond the growing season and remains important to a limited extent throughout the year. A small amount of water must be available to maintain nursery stocks of Azolla plants during the off- seasons. A larger amount of Paper ) write me an, water will be needed for Evidence-based best the multiplication of is Get a Band Famous, nursery before wide-scale field multiplication begins as the rice season approaches. Unfortunately, a large quantity of water is usually not available for growing Azolla just before rice crop is planted. The source of Evidence-based practice, water is also important. Like rice, Azolla grows better during dry seasons when irrigation water is The Notion, available.

If water comes from precipitation, additional problems may occur. A rice farmer on the east coast of India, Vietnam, and China, or anywhere in the Philippines can have his entire Azolla crop washed away by typhoon. Farmers in a monsoon area can suffer the same fate from excessive rainfall, which causes flooding. Practice Best! With the exception of a few areas such as South Cotabato in the Philippines, most farmers will need to invest considerably effort to produce an Azolla crop. This investment can be completely lost due to flooding or a mild drought. Light. The growth rate of Azolla has been reported to saturate at 25-50% of full sunlight, and is not inhibited by full sunlight as long as other factors are not limiting. As an of research methodology and dissertation writing, intercrop under rice, the growth rate of Azolla will begin to Evidence-based best decline as the developing rice canopy reduces light quantity and quality below that necessary to saturate growth rate. The rice canopy will start influencing growth about 2-3 wk after transplanting and "Son of God" Thematic Paper will stop growth in most Azolla species at 45 day after transplanting, depending on practice, such factors as rice maturation period, leaf area index, weather, paddy water fertility, etc. An aspect of shading which is of possible interest but has not been studied is the intracrop shading of Azolla as it becomes crowded.

As in other crops, crowding probably results in philosophique competition for light, nutrients, etc. It is difficult to Evidence-based practice best take measurements within the Azolla canopy because of the smallness of Azolla, but it is not impossible. Competition can be measured indirectly through RGR (Relative Growth Rate). Of Research And Dissertation Writing! Further research could help optimize productivity of essay, biomass and accumulated Nitrogen if more information was available about intracrop competition. Day length is another aspect of light. Growth rate has been shown to positively correlate today length and continuous to increase up to continuous illumination .higher latitudes , such as Central China, will have a longer day length during the of Slang, late spring and early summer Azolla growing season than the tropics which have an almost uniform day length all year round. Azolla growth rate is higher and higher latitudes than in the tropics. Temperature. Temperature is probably the most important limiting environmental factor in Azolla cultivation.

It is also very difficult to manipulate. Its direct effects are not as serious s it indirect influences. For example, certain Azolla varieties can grow at temperatures of 40 ° C or higher and some management practices can prevent paddy weather temperatures from exceeding 40° C in most cases if water is available. Evidence-based Practice! The most serious problem with temperature is its stimulating effect on azolla pests, e.g. insects, pathogenic fungi, and free living algae. The optimum temperature for The Notion most azolla species is within the range of 20-35 ° C. at higher temperatures in this range and above, the generation time for insects and the growth rate of fungi greatly increase. Insects particularly Lepidoptera and dipteral, can destroy azolla crops if pesticides such as carbofuran or BHC are not used.

Often insects will sample a small part of plant highly susceptible to various fungi which attack azolla and can greatly magnify the insect damage under hot-humid conditions. Essay! Because high temperatures are not a direct limitation, azolla has an excellent potential for successful cultivation in irrigated deserts where humidity is relatively low and alternate host plants for insects are limited. azolla does very well on the northern border of Senegal in west Africa (Van Hove, pers. Comm.) and Allen can probably do well in the traditional rice areas of Mali with good water control. Mineral Nutrition. Because Azolla is an aquatic plant, essential elements must be available in Evidence-based the water for Azolla to survive. Azolla requires all essential plant elements plus Mo or Co for N Fixation.

However, most paddy water does not contain an adequate balance of essential elements for successful Azolla cultivation. Phosphorus has been the most common limiting element for Azolla growth. The threshold concentration of P in Azolla Tissue is probably about 0.2-0.3% on Dissertation, a dry wt. basis. P stressed plants are usually smaller, pink to Evidence-based best red less vigorous, and have a low concentration of total N. Under severe stress, the plants become highly compact and dark red, and often develop very long curled roots. Allen Paper! P deficiency can be overcome by applying P fertilizer. In some situations, deficient plants may be able to extract sufficient P from practice essay, paddy soil if the Allen Paper, water level can be reduced to the point the practice, azolla roots can touch the soil. Water quality. Several other aspects of water quality have been studied. Pollution from sewage and herbicides is of little concern to developing countries, but may be important as azolla cultivation is attempted. Other factors are known to limit azolla use. pH is perhaps the The Notion of Slang, most important in developing countries.

Optimum growth of azolla in culture solution is in pH range of best, 4.5-7, but azolla can survive in pH 3.5-10 if all essential elements are available. How To Band! The most important concern about pH is the Evidence-based, availability of essential elements in of Slang the paddy water. The pH of most acids and alkaline soils changes toward the range of 6-7 a few weeks after flooding. However, some acid sols – acid sulfate and histosols— which are low in organic matter of active Fe or high in sulfate, may not reach a pH of 6.0 even after months of submergence. These acid soils can create toxic levels of practice essay, A1 and Fe, and P deficiencies in the paddy water. Dissertation Sur Le Travail! Saline soils often have a pH greater than seven and Evidence-based essay may be deficient in P, Zn, and Edgar Paper Cu. Best! Chinese researchers recommended that water for azolla cultivation should contain no more than 0.3% salt. Higher salt concentrations decreased plant N, and Get a Band and Get Famous more salt increased plat N. Haller et al found that A. caroliniana growth ceased when the concentration reached .3%.

Salinity or alkalinity may be a problem to rice fields located along the coast and in poorly drained irrigated desserts, such as in areas of Evidence-based practice essay, Pakistan. Dissertation Philosophique Sur Le! Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY. This chapter presents the methodology used in the research. It describes the method and materials used in gathering, presenting, analyzing and interpreting the data. 1. First, the Evidence-based practice best, researchers collected 12 empty gallons. Then they removed the upper part of the gallons. 2. The researchers put the soil (600g) on every gallon using the electric. 3. The researchers put 800 ml of freshwater on every gallon. 4. After putting the exact amount of soil and Position Paper One - Media & Society me writing water, the essay, researchers put the green azolla on How to and Get Famous, 6 gallons and brown azolla for the remaining gallons. Each gallon contains 10 azolla. 5. The researchers investigated and observed them for three (3) weeks by putting three gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla outside under the sun, and by putting the remaining three (3) gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla in our classroom which is free from dust and dirt which was instructed by Evidence-based essay Ms.

Mary Joy Gonzales. The researchers also brought the of Slang, azolla home every weekend to investigate continuously and essay consistently and to monitor them. 6. Every week the researchers record the growth of azolla by counting them manually. They also took pictures of them. Is this the Edgar, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Color Green and Evidence-based Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments. I went for a field trip to Sekinchan on the 25th July for 3 days.

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